top of page

IELTS Academic Reading Ep. 4

You will find downloadable material, a summary, techniques and tips, as well as other important information about this skill below.


Lesson summary:

Episode: 4

Our lesson this evening emphasizes a new method of adding information - Defining Relative Clauses. Kru. Jaem also explains the differences between the Present Perfect vs Present Perfect Continuous and the Past Perfect vs the Past Perfect Continuous.

Important information:


  • Homework can be submitted via Line only for IELTS Reading.

  • Listening, Reading, and Writing must only be submitted by email to

  • Students should download the recommended books.

Essential Points

1. Defining Relative Clauses:

  • Purpose: These clauses provide essential information about a noun, helping to identify it.

  • Example: "The book that I bought yesterday is on the shelf." (The relative clause "that I bought yesterday" defines which book is being referred to.)

2. Present Perfect:

  • Usage: Indicates an action that started in the past and has relevance to the present. It emphasizes the result or current state resulting from the action.

  • Structure: Subject + has/have + past participle.

  • Example: "I have visited Paris twice." (The emphasis is on the experience of visiting Paris, with a connection to the present.)

3. Present Perfect Continuous:

  • Usage: Expresses the duration of an action that started in the past and continues into the present. Emphasizes the ongoing nature of the activity.

  • Structure: Subject + has/have + been + present participle.

  • Example: "She has been studying for three hours." (Highlights the continuous effort of studying over a period leading up to the present.)

4. Past Simple:

  • Usage: Describes completed actions or events in the past.

  • Structure: Subject + past tense verb.

  • Example: "They visited the museum last week." (Indicates a specific completed action in the past.)

5. Past Perfect Continuous:

  • Usage: Describes an ongoing action that was happening before another action in the past. It emphasizes the duration of the activity.

  • Structure: Subject + had been + present participle.

  • Example: "He had been working for hours when his friend called." (The past perfect continuous emphasizes the duration of the work before the friend's call in the past.)

bottom of page