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Lesson summary:

Episode: 4

Important information:


Students can download the file mentioned in the live Zoom class using this link here

  • Homework can be submitted via Line only for IELTS Speaking.

  • Listening, Reading, and Writing must only be submitted by email to

  • Students should download the recommended books.

Essential Grammar

  • Non-Defining Relative Clause:

  • Definition:

    • A non-defining relative clause (also known as a non-restrictive relative clause) provides additional information about a noun. However, this information is not essential for identifying the noun; it adds extra details but doesn't change the core meaning of the sentence.

  • Structure:

    • The relative clause begins with a relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, which, or that) and is separated by commas.

    • Example: "The Southern Alps, which are known for their majestic peaks, attract many hikers."

    • Example: "Queenstown, which is often referred to as the 'Adventure Capital of the World', offers a wide range of thrilling activities."

  • Present Perfect Continuous:

  • Structure:

    • Affirmative: Subject + has/have + been + present participle (verb + -ing).

    • Negative: Subject + has/have + not + been + present participle (or contraction: haven't/hasn't).

    • Interrogative: Has/Have + subject + been + present participle?

  • Use:

    • The present perfect continuous tense is used to emphasize the duration of an action that started in the past, continues into the present, and may have relevance to the present moment.

  • Examples:

    • "I have been exploring the Fiordland National Park for the past two weeks."

    • "They haven't been living in Auckland for long, but they already love the city."

  • Additional Notes:

  • Non-defining relative clauses are often used to provide interesting or additional information about a noun without changing the essential meaning of the sentence.

  • The present perfect continuous is useful for describing ongoing or repeated actions that started in the past and continue into the present, especially when the duration of the action is emphasized.

  • Combined Example:

    • "The Waitomo Caves, which have been captivating visitors for centuries, are known for their glowworm displays."

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