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Lesson summary:

Episode: 5

Important information:


Students are able to download the file from the class by clicking here.

  • Homework can be submitted via Line only for IELTS Speaking.

  • Listening, Reading, and Writing must only be submitted by email to

  • Students should download the recommended books.

Essential Grammar

  • Dependent Prepositions:

    • Dependent prepositions are prepositions that are fixed or dependent on specific verbs, adjectives, or nouns. The choice of preposition depends on the context, and using the wrong preposition may change the meaning of the expression.

    • Example: "I am interested in history." ("Interested" is followed by the dependent preposition "in.")

  • Indirect Speech:

    • Indirect speech is a way of reporting what someone else has said without quoting their exact words. It often involves changes in pronouns, verb tense, and sometimes the use of dependent prepositions.

    • Example:

      • Direct speech: "John said, 'I will visit Queenstown.'"

      • Indirect speech: "John said that he would visit Queenstown."

      • (Note the change in tense and the use of the dependent preposition "that.")

  • Direct Speech:

    • Direct speech involves quoting the exact words spoken by someone. It is often enclosed in quotation marks.

    • Example:The guide said, 'You must stay on the marked trail when hiking in the national parks.'"

      • In this direct speech example, the guide's exact words are quoted.

  • Examples with Dependent Prepositions in Indirect and Direct Speech:

  • Direct Speech:

    • "Jane exclaimed, 'I am so excited about exploring the Waitomo Caves!'"

  • Indirect Speech:

    • "Jane exclaimed that she was so excited about exploring the Waitomo Caves."

  • Direct Speech:

    • "Tom said, 'I am not familiar with this Maori tradition.'"

  • Indirect Speech:

    • "Tom said that he was not familiar with this Maori tradition."

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